Sunday, January 16, 2011

Khasi Pnar: A community in transition

 By HH Mohrmen
Recently much space on the editorial pages of The Shillong Times was devoted to the debate about the Khasi Pnar land tenure system, Khasi Pnar polity et al. What looks like a debate on the some attributes of the Khasi Pnar culture and tradition is in fact a debate on the changes manifests in the society (ka jaitbynriew) in transition. We therefore owe so much to Broncostar Thyrniang, Morning Star Sumer, Prof Kynpham Singh Nongkynrih, Michael N. Syiem and of course our own Kong Patricia Mukhim for kick-starting an enlightening debate.
To begin with, I think it is important to understand who is a Khasi Pnar? I always use the two words ‘Khasi Pnar’ in one breath and without a hyphen. Khasi Pnar is one and the same people much like Siamese twins; they are identical, inseparable yet unique in their own ways. For me the debate started by the patriotic folk song "Khynriam u Pnar, u Bhoi u War u dei u paid Khasi baiar" ends here. Therefore rather than using the nomenclature ‘Khasi’ as an inclusive name for the tribe, I use ‘Khasi Pnar’. The next question that begs for an answer is, ‘What does it mean to be a Khasi Pnar?’ A Khasi Pnar is defined by his identity and when I say identity, I means sharing a common culture which includes language, food habits etc. But the word culture itself begs for definition every time it is being used.
In order to understand the culture one must know and understand the stories, the myths and the legends of that particular culture. Rev Dr John Buehrens in his book ‘Understanding the Bible,’ said, to understand the western culture one must at least know the stories in the Bible because much about the western culture is in some way or the other connected with the stories in the Bible. Some are also of the opinion that the western jurisprudence the world uses has its foundation in the ten commandments of Moses. I think it is the same with the pan Indian culture too. One will fully understand the culture if only one is well versed with the stories and myths abounding in the civilization.
It is the same with the Khasi Pnar culture; one needs to know the stories of the tribe to be able to understand and appreciate its customs and traditions. If we talk about Khasi Pnar hospitality, one must know the folktale about u kwai, u tympew, ka shun and ka duma sla (the betel nut, betel leaf, lime and tobacco leaves ) . To be able to appreciate the clan system of the Khasi Pnar, one must understand the stories of the great maternal grandmother (Iawbei) and the great grand maternal uncle of the clan and the great grandfather of the clan. Almost all the Khasi Pnar clans have fascinating stories about the genesis of their respective clans. In some cases, these stories also relate to the Polity of the area if the clan in question is the royal clan, like the story of ‘ka Li dakha’ and the Sutnga clan of Jaintia syiemship and the story of ka ‘Pahsyntiew’ in the Nongkrem syiemship. To be able to understand the reason why the Khasi Pnar adopts the matrilineal tradition in their lineage system, one needs to know the story in this regard. It will also be difficult to understand the community’s attitude and reverence for nature if one is ignorant of the many stories like the ‘ka Iew luri lura’, ‘ka krem lamet, krem latang’ and thousands of stories that our ancestors weaved in their efforts to try to understand the mysteries of mother nature. One would also need to understand the reason why our forefathers have the tradition of keeping the sacred forests to be able to understand their wisdom in relation with mother earth.
But the crux of the debate is that the Khasi Pnar like any other community is in the process of constant evolution and right now we are at the cross roads. Like many of the young Khasi Pnar, I question the relevance of our dorbar shnong in its present form. We may have moved away from the archaic tradition that only those who sport beards can take part in the dorbar, but, we are yet to have a female head of the shnong. And for that matter if we have one, what do we call her or what would her designation be? Certainly not Rangbah Shnong! How democratic is the institution which does not guarantee equal rights to members of its community? I would also like to see a reformed dorbar shnong run by professionals specialized in community development and not by people who belong to a different profession and become Rangbah Shnong just for the sake of it. Dorbar Shnong (village or town council) is a serious business; the job cannot be performed by someone trying to serve two masters and on a voluntary basis. I also have my reservations with regards to the Syiemship and Daloiship. Why is it that for no fault of mine and just because I was born in the wrong clan, I cannot inherit the chieftainship and neither can I be a Myntri, a Laskor or a Daloi? I consider this undemocratic! With regard to the land tenure system, is it wrong to conclude that the Wah Umkhrah and may other rivers lost their pristine glory because of the present land tenure system? We assume that once we own the land we also own, the stream and rivers and everything in it. These are only some of the features of our tradition that need re-examining in the light of the modern world.
In the year 2009, I visited the Native American museum in Washington DC. I was fascinated by the collection of Native American arts and artifacts and I was deeply touched by the videos screened continuously in the sections allotted to more than 200 Native American tribes in America. I spend much time watching these videos and realized if there is a common thread that links the many documentaries, it is the dilemma that the tribes are facing in their efforts to cope with the modern way of life and simultaneously keep their traditions. In my humble opinion the question is, ‘How do we move forward with some of these antique traditions?’ This is the dilemma that the Indigenous People are facing the world over. To clear the cobwebs from my mind I continued to discuss the issue with my friend and guide Bob Tripp and I remember saying, ‘It is the question of how much of the baggage from the past we can carry to the future?’ Bob’s remark was, ‘Perhaps they are not even baggage’.
The customs and traditions that we have may not be baggage but certainly some can be impediments in the community’s move towards the future. In the tribes’ evolution, we need to re-look at some of these traditions. Some of these customs, traditions and stories were relevant for our forefathers in the era that was, and they should not be a stumbling block for us to move forward and evolve. The rightful place for some of these obsolete customs and traditions are the history books. They should be like a cursor to help us know where we came from, where we were once upon a time and also help us understand the future. These stories will also help us understand and appreciate the wisdom of our ancestors. The stories should be like roots to a tree; their role is to help us stand tall and grow from strength to strength. We must not get stuck anywhere; nothing can stand on the way of the society’s evolution.
To maintain our unique identity, the Khasi Pnar must continue with parts of the culture which are relevant to the present day and keep those that are outdated in the treasure trove of the community. Perhaps a modern day Khasi Pnar is one who speaks his language, understands the stories of his community, lives by the cardinal values of the tribe ‘ban kamai ia ka hok, ban tip briew tip blei bad ban tip kur tip kha’ (to earn righteousness, to know man and know God, and to know his maternal and paternal kin). Perhaps a modern day Khasi Pnar is one who is proud of his traditional attire and uses it with pride when the occasion warrants. And the debate must continue… (The writer is an elder of the Unitarian Church, an environmental activist, columnist and a thought leader)

Wednesday, January 12, 2011

What is it about winter?

Come December and it is the onset of the holiday mood among the Khasi Pnar. We may now attribute this to the festive season beginning with Christmas and end with a bang on New Year, but winter has always been a fun time for the Khasi Pnar even before the advent of Christianity and invasion of western culture. Winter may be cold and dry and it would also be a dull time of the year for the community; but the Khasi Pnar seems to know how to substitute the cold, dull, dark and dry season with merriment.
It starts with the Khasi Pnar’s own calendar, I am not sure if the Khasi Pnar has any idea of a year ending in their tradition but winter is certainly a special time. If there is any such thing as year ending tradition among the Khasi Pnar, can that be in the month of July for the Pnar when they celebrate their Behdien Khlam and the month of November for the Khasi when they celebrate Ka Pom Blang syiem? Whatever the case may be, the Khasi Pnar certainly know how o count their days, week and month and have their own calendar. The Khasi’s name for the last month of the year is ‘Nohprah’, which I think derive from the two words ‘noh’ and ‘prah.’ The two words can loosely be translated to ‘Noh’ to throw or rid off and ‘Prah’ is a kind of a basket use as container. The name of the month implies that is the time to ‘noh prah; noh shang’ or ‘noh shang noh knup’. If this interpretation is taken into consideration; then Nohrah means to rid off the baskets and all the farming tools. It is the time to lay back and rest and it also a time for fun and frolic as nothing much can be done during the dull, dry and dark season. All agriculture activities came to a standstill as the topography and the climate of the area during this particular time of the year is also not conducive for any kind of farming. The Pnar’s name for the twelfth month of the year is ‘Kmai-chonglad’, which again comprises of two Pnar words ‘kmai’ and ‘chonglad’. The Pnar word ‘kmai’ means big or massive and ‘chonglad’ mean staying or sitting idle in the centre of the village. In the other words it means: the part of the year which people have enormous time for sitting idle in the hub of the village and do nothing except to meet in the village centre, sitting around the fire, share a smoking pipe and bettlenuts and indulge in never ending chat.  We can now imagine what this part of the year means for our ancestors? What kind of life they lived? What did they do during the time of the year when they do not have the kind of entertainment we enjoy now? How did they spend the cold, dry wintry days and nights, with only fire to keep them warm? How did they make use the only time they were free from any kind of farming which is again the only occupation they had then?
Fast forward to the present generation, what does winter means? Rather how does the Khasi Pnar spend this time of the year? Forget Christmas and New Year celebration which is a global phenomenon, other than that; what are the most common activities that people engage themselves during the season? There is an invitation to all kinds of dinner almost on every alternative day, today it would be the wedding, then tomorrow it will be somebody’s birthday and then the next day will be another reason to celebrate. Every picnic spot available is occupied during this time of the year, it can be a family picnic, a picnic amongst coworkers or a picnic among friends and very often than not; the picnic is just another excuse for party and booze and lots of jadoh and doh.
It is also that time of the year that picnic spots were abused and their natural pristine beauty spoiled. Picnickers took the liberty to have fun and litter the beautiful picnic spots and forget their responsibility to clean the mess they have created. If one would take a walk down the Syntu Ksiar the famous picnic spot in Jowai town; one would be greeted with chicken feathers, all kinds of leftovers from plastics cups to paper plates, bottles and what have you.
To add to the joyous season, there are communities excursions to any place worth’s its name; but the most popular excursion destination is non-other than the famous amusement park the Accoland.
Why is it that this time of the year is always associated with feast and fun? Why is it that couple always chose to inter into wedlock during this season? One possible answer is an area with monsoon climate, weather-wise it is much more convenient to organized big feast during winter. May be it is by tradition that it is that time of the year that a large section of the people are free and with no rain to play spoilsport, hence a perfect time for celebration. Whatever the reason to celebrate may be, it is that time of the year when the life of thousands of animals is at stake. It is that time of the year where hundreds and thousands of chickens, goats, cows and pigs were slaughtered if not for picnic then it must be for wedding.
It would be interesting if a survey was conducted to find the numbers of animals slaughtered during this season. I had a walk on the Iawmusiang Street in Jowai on both Christmas Eve and Christmas day and found that the street was literarily taken over by the chicken sellers. The same thing happened on the New Year eve and New Year day, when everything is closed on the first day of the year, the meat sellers and the butchers were only one doing a brisk business.
When it comes to mass animals slaughtering, feast and merriment there cannot be another occasion and another place anywhere else that can beat the New Year day celebration in Jowai. Jowai is famous for its New Year eve and New Year day celebration. The town was literarily lit and warmed by the 20 odd bonfires in the entire town and at the stroke of midnight on New Year eve fireworks and fire crackers lit the skyline of the dark sky of Jowai. The New Year day is a day of community feast, all the 20 or so localities (now they prefer to call themselves dorbar shnong) organized feast in their respective localities. Hundreds of chickens and pigs were again slaughtered for the occasion, but the highlight of the New Year celebration is Jowai is the dance procession where all the 20 odd localities marched to the town centre from every direction of Jowai with music and songs from the sound systems tied on the pickup trucks. A friend from abroad said that the dance procession is similar to the Rio Carnival where people literarily dance to the street. The grand way the people welcome the New Year is also a sign of Jowai being a happy town.
Ironically, winter is also that time of the year with maxim number of bereavement, so the Khasi Pnar people spend much of their time during winter between attending weddings and visiting the bereaved family. Winter is not only just fun and frolic but is also one the busiest season for the Khasi Pnar people, with only less than 10 hours of daylight available; people were always on their toe to finish their chores. So while we journey on the New Year; may we be mindful that life is a never ending walk between joy and sorrow. Happy New Year!